Tutorials

June 27, Day 0

9:00–10:30A Look at Basics of Distributed Computing
Michel Raynal (Professor, IRISA, University of Rennes, France)
10:30–11:00Coffee Break
11:00–12:30Cognitive Technologies for Smarter Cities
Martin G. Kienzle (Electronics Industry Leader, IBM T.J. Watson Research, U.S.A.)
12:30–14:00Lunch
14:00–15:30Reflecting on the past, preparing for the future: from peer-to-peer to edge-centric computing
Alberto Montresor (Associate Professor, The University of Trento, Italy)
15:30–16:00Coffee Break
16:00–17:30Software-Based Networks: Leveraging high-performance NFV platforms to meet future communication challenges
K. K. Ramakrishnan (Professor, University of California, Riverside, U.S.A.)

A Look at Basics of Distributed Computing

Michel Raynal

Institut Universitaire de France, Academia Europaea
Professor, IRISA, University of Rennes, France
Adjunct Professor, Department of Computing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Abstract

This tutorial presents concepts and basics of distributed computing which are important (at least from the author's point of view!), and should be known and mastered by Master students, researchers, and engineers. Those include: (a) a characterization of distributed computing (which is too much often confused with parallel computing); (b) the notion of a synchronous system and its associated notions of a local algorithm and message adversaries; (c) the notion of an asynchronous shared memory system and its associated notions of universality and progress conditions; and (d) the notion of an asynchronous message-passing system with its associated broadcast and agreement abstractions, its impossibility results, and approaches to circumvent them. Hence, the tutorial can be seen as a guided tour to key elements that constitute basics of distributed computing.

Biography

Michel Raynal is a Professor of Informatics, IRISA, University of Rennes, France. His main research interests are the basic principles of distributed computing systems. Recognized as a world leading researcher in distributed computing, he is the author of numerous papers on this topic (more than 145 in int'l scientific journals, and more than 300 papers in int'l conferences). He is also well-known for his books on distributed computing. From a "purely numeric" point of view, his h-index is 52 and his i-10 index is 235. He is a senior member of the prestigious "Institut Universitaire de France", and a member of Academia Europaea. He was the recipient of the 2015 Int'l Award "Innovation in Distributed Computing" (also known as SIROCCO Prize).

Prof. Raynal chaired the program committee of the major conferences on the topic (ICDCS, DISC,SIROCCO, OPODIS, ICDCN, etc.) and served on the program committees of more than 180 int'l conferences including all the most prestigious ones. He is the recipient of several "Best Paper" awards of major conferences (including ICDCS 1999, 2000 and 2001, SSS 2009 and 2011, Europar 2010, DISC 2010, PODC 2014). He supervised more than 45 PhD students. He gave lectures on distributed computing n many universities all over the world. In the recent past, Michel Raynal has written four books: "Communication and Agreement Abstractions for Fault-Tolerant Asynchronous Distributed Systems", Morgan & Claypool 251 pages, 2010 (ISBN 978-1-60845-293-4); "Fault-Tolerant Agreement in Synchronous Distributed Systems", 165 pages, Morgan & Claypool, September 2010), (ISBN 978-1-60845-525-6); "Concurrent Programming: Algorithms, Principles and Foundations", Springer, 515 pages, 2012 (ISBN 978-3-642-32026-2), and "Distributed Algorithms for Message-passing Systems", Springer, 510 pages, 2013 (ISBN: 978-3-642-32026-2).

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Cognitive Technologies for Smarter Cities

Martin G. Kienzle

Electronics Industry Leader
IBM T.J. Watson Research, U.S.A.

Abstract

Great computing technology advances during the early years of the new millennium facilitated a smarter cities vision. Smarter cities solutions focusing on specific city problem domains have proven their value in many proofs-of-concept. The insights and experiences from these experiments enable cities to deploy these types of solutions more widely with confidence. New advances in a broad range of technologies, in particular Internet of Things technologies and cognitive technologies, promise to expand the scope and the value of smarter cities solutions to greatly improve the lives of city dwellers. This tutorial gives an overview of smarter cities applications so far, and the technologies powering them. Then it proceeds to review the incipient technologies that will drive the next wave of smarter cities solutions: the Internet of Things driving cognitive computing systems. It concludes by examining two major smarter cities solution categories that promise to greatly improve the lives of city dwellers.

Biography

Martin G. Kienzle, Informatik Diplom 1976, Karlsruhe; M.Sc. Computer Science, 1977, Toronto; Ph.D. EE 1992, UMass Amherst; IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1978-present; Senior Lifetime Member IEEE; Member IBM Industry Academy; published more than 50 papers and holds 19 patents; professional experience started with performance evaluation of multi-processor hardware and software, and proceeded to performance management of mid-range systems, connection management in distributed systems, streaming media technologies, and the integration of digital media support into large scale middleware; conducted many proof-of-concept projects of advanced media technologies with enterprise and institutional customers; current focus are Internet of Things technologies and the emerging cognitive technologies.

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Reflecting on the past, preparing for the future: from peer-to-peer to edge-centric computing

Alberto Montresor

Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science
The University of Trento, Italy

Abstract

In many aspects of human activity, there has been a continuous struggle between the forces of centralization and decentralization. Computing exhibits the same phenomenon; after having abandoned mainframes in favor of PCs, the last decade has witnessed an unparalleled centralization and consolidation of services in data centers and clouds. Yet, trust, privacy, security and autonomy concerns are requiring to shift control again, taking services from the central nodes (the "core") to the other logical extreme (the "edge") of the Internet. This development can help blurring the boundary between man and machine, and embrace social computing in which humans are part of the computation and decision-making loop, resulting in a human-centered system design. In this tutorial we will elaborate on the necessary steps to be taken and challenges to be solved to realize this vision. The tutorial will include an overview of related research topics, including peer-to-peer networks, blockchains, hybrid and decentralized cloud architectures.

Biography

Alberto Montresor received a M.Sc. degree in Computer Science from the University of Bologna in 1995, and a Ph.D. from the same university in 2000. After having served as post-doc and research assistant at the University of Bologna for five years, he joined the University of Trento in 2005 as associate professor. He has authored more than 80 papers on large-scale distributed systems, cloud computing and P2P networks; he also co-authored a textbook on algorithms and data structures. His publications have received more than 4.600 citations, with an h-index of 32 (Google Scholar). He served as general chair and program chair for several conferences (DOA, DAIS, SASO, P2P) and steering committe chair of the IEEE Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing.

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Software-Based Networks: Leveraging high-performance NFV platforms to meet future communication challenges

K. K. Ramakrishnan

Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering
University of California, Riverside, U.S.A.

Abstract

Communication networks are changing. They are becoming more and more “software-based.” The use of Network Function Virtualization (NFV) to run network services in software enables Software Defined Networks (SDN) to create a largely software-based network. To truly achieve the vision of a high-performance software-based network that is flexible, lower- cost, and agile, a fast and carefully designed network function virtualization platform along with a comprehensive SDN control plane is needed.

Our high-performance NFV platform, OpenNetVM, enables high bandwidth network functions to operate at near line speed, while taking advantage of the flexibility and customization of low cost commodity servers. OpenNetVM exploits Intel’s DPDK libraries to minimize the overhead of packet processing, and to provide high throughput, low latency networking in virtualized environments. OpenNetVM allows true zero-copy delivery of data to VMs, both for packet processing and high-speed inter-VM communication through shared huge pages within a trust boundary. We envision a dynamic and flexible network that can support a smarter data plane than just simple switches that forward packets. We build on our OpenNetVM NFV platform by developing our SDNFV network architecture that supports complex stateful routing of flows where processing by network functions (NFs) can dynamically modify the path taken by flows, without unduly burdening the centralized SDN controller. The tutorial will also briefly touch upon the problem of dynamic placement of network functions and routing of flows through a software based network, exploiting a mixture of centralized SDN control and NFV capabilities in the network. The problem can be formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem, and heuristics can be used to solve the problem incrementally.

As a case study, we examine the growing communication needs of ‘Internet-of-Things’ (IoT). With ‘smart’ sensing devices becoming ubiquitous, there is a need to support IoT communication at large scale, especially over cellular networks. The use of NFV platforms for the Evolved Packet Core, we see opportunities for supporting IoT communications at large scale in 5G cellular networks. We will describe potential solutions in this direction.

Biography

Dr. K. K. Ramakrishnan is Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of California, Riverside. Until recently was a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff at AT&T Labs-Research. He joined AT&T Bell Labs in 1994 and has been with AT&T Labs-Research since its inception in 1996. Prior to 1994, he was a Technical Director and Consulting Engineer in Networking at Digital Equipment Corporation. Between 2000 and 2002, he was at TeraOptic Networks, Inc., as Founder and Vice President.

Dr. Ramakrishnan is an AT&T Fellow, recognized for his fundamental contributions on communication networks and lasting impact on AT&T and the industry, including his work on congestion control, traffic management and VPN services. He is an IEEE Fellow, and has received other awards. His work on the "DECbit" congestion avoidance protocol was recognized in the 1995 retrospective issue of ACM Sigcomm Computer Communication Review as one of the 16 most important papers published over the previous 25 years in ACM Sigcomm publications. The work once again received the ACM Sigcomm Test of Time Paper Award in 2006. He has published nearly 200 papers and has more than 120 patents issued in his name. K.K. has been on the editorial board of several journals and has served as the TPC Chair and General Chair for several networking conferences and has been a member of the National Research Council Panel on Information Technology for NIST. K. K. received his MS from the Indian Institute of Science (1978), MS (1981) and Ph.D. (1983) in Computer Science from the University of Maryland, College Park, USA.

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